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Harnessing the Power of Long-Chain Amino Acids

Golf course turfgrass is constantly under the threat of fungal pathogens, which can cause severe damage and compromise the aesthetic appeal and playability of the course. However, turfgrass possesses an intriguing defense mechanism involving the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In this blog, we will explore how long-chain amino acids play a crucial role in the synthesis of AMPs and PR proteins, equipping turfgrass with the necessary arsenal to combat fungus and other pathogens.

1. The Role of Amino Acids in Protein Synthesis: Amino acids are the building

blocks of proteins, and their availability within the plant plays a vital role in the

synthesis of defense-related proteins. Long-chain amino acids, such as

phenylalanine, tryptophan, and tyrosine, are particularly important as they are

precursors for the production of antimicrobial peptides and PR proteins.

2. Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs): AMPs are small proteins that exhibit broad-

spectrum antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including fungi. They

play a critical role in the plant's defense against invading microorganisms. Long-

chain amino acids, especially phenylalanine, are essential for the synthesis of

AMPs. Phenylalanine is converted into phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, an

enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid

compounds, including flavonoids and lignin, which are involved in the production

of AMPs.

3. Pathogenesis-Related (PR) Proteins: PR proteins are a group of plant proteins

that are induced in response to pathogen attack. They assist in strengthening the

plant's defense system and inhibiting pathogen growth. Long-chain amino acids,

such as tryptophan and tyrosine, contribute to the production of PR proteins.

Tryptophan is involved in the synthesis of indole compounds, which serve as

signaling molecules, while tyrosine is crucial for the production of tyrosine

ammonia-lyase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of phenolic compounds and

PR proteins.

4. Signaling Pathways and Gene Expression: The synthesis of AMPs and PR

proteins in response to pathogen attack is regulated by complex signaling

pathways and gene expression. Long-chain amino acids act as precursors for

secondary metabolites and signaling molecules, which trigger the activation of

defense-related genes. These genes initiate a cascade of molecular events

leading to the production of AMPs and PR proteins, reinforcing the turfgrass'

ability to fight off fungal pathogens.

Long-chain amino acids play a pivotal role in the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in golf course turfgrass. These defense proteins act as potent weapons against fungal pathogens, bolstering the plant's resilience and maintaining the health and beauty of golf courses. By understanding the significance of long-chain amino acids in this defense mechanism, turfgrass managers can implement strategies to enhance amino acid availability and promote effective pathogen resistance.


We have a specialty product designed specifically for building long chain amino acids within the turf!

Tru-Pro Sales Sheet - 2023
Download PDF • 451KB



  1. Qi, G., Chen, J., Chang, M., & Chen, H. (2017). Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Promoters of Plant Growth and Defense against Pathogens. In Amino Acids in Higher Plants (pp. 233-253). Springer.

  2. Van Loon, L. C., Rep, M., & Pieterse, C. M. (2006). Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 44, 135-162.



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